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This section outlines treatments that are the standard of care (the best proven treatments available) for this specific type of cancer. When making treatment plan decisions, patients are also encouraged to consider clinical trials as an option. A clinical trial is a research study to test a new treatment to evaluate whether it is safe, effective, and possibly better than standard treatment. Your doctor can help you review all treatment options.
Many cancers of the head and neck can be cured, especially if they are found early.
Although curing the cancer is the primary goal of treatment, preserving the function of the nearby nerves, organs, and tissues is also very important. When they plan treatment, doctors consider how treatment might affect a person’s quality of life, such as how a person feels, looks, talks, eats, and breathes.
Head and neck cancer specialists often form a multidisciplinary team to care for each patient, and an evaluation should be done by each doctor or the team before any treatment begins. The team may include medical and radiation oncologists; surgeons; otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat doctors); plastic (reconstruction) surgeons; maxillofacial prosthodontists (specialists who perform restorative surgery in the head and neck areas); dentists; physical therapists; speech pathologists; audiologists (hearing experts); psychiatrists; nurses; dietitians; and social workers. It is extremely important to create a comprehensive treatment plan before treatment begins, and people may need to be seen by several specialists before a treatment plan is fully developed.
In addition, evaluation may include testing for HPV infection. As outlined in the Risk Factors section, HPV has been linked to a higher risk of some head and neck cancers. In some cases, whether a person has HPV can also be a factor in determining which treatments are likely to be most effective.
Descriptions of the most common treatment options for head and neck cancer are listed below.
The main treatment options are surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. One of these therapies, or a combination of them, may be part of a person’s treatment plan. Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, possible side effects, and the patient’s preferences and overall health.
During surgery, the goal is to remove the cancerous tumor and some of the healthy tissue around it (called a margin). A surgical oncologist is a doctor who specializes in treating cancer using surgery. Types of surgery for head and neck cancer include:
Excision. This is an operation to remove the cancerous tumor and the margin around it.
Laser technology. This may be used to treat early-stage tumors, especially in larynx cancer.
Lymph node dissection. If the doctor suspects that the cancer has spread, the doctor may remove lymph nodes in the neck, possibly causing stiffness in the shoulders afterward. This may be done at the same time as an excision.
Reconstructive (plastic) surgery. This type of operation is aimed at restoring a person’s appearance and function of the affected area. If the surgery requires major tissue removal (for example, removing the jaw, skin, pharynx, or tongue), reconstructive or plastic surgery may be done to replace the missing tissue. A prosthodontist may be able to make an artificial dental or facial part to help restore the ability to swallow and speak. A speech pathologist may then be needed to help the patient relearn how to swallow and communicate using new techniques or special equipment.
In general, depending on the location, stage, and type of the cancer, some people may need more than one operation. Sometimes, it is not possible to completely remove the cancer; additional treatments may be necessary. For example, surgery may be followed by radiation treatment and/or chemotherapy to destroy cancer cells that cannot be removed during surgery.
Side effects of surgery depend on the type and location of the surgery, and each patient is encouraged to talk with their doctor about side effects expected from the specific surgery and how long the side effects are likely to last. Common side effects from head and neck surgery include temporary or permanent loss of normal voice or impaired speech; difficulty chewing or swallowing, which may require a tube inserted in the stomach for feeding purposes; hearing loss; or decreased functioning of the thyroid gland, especially after a total laryngectomy (the removal of the larynx).
Another potential side effect is swelling of the mouth and throat area, making it difficult to breathe. In such cases, patients may receive a temporary tracheostomy (a hole in the windpipe) to make breathing easier.
Some people experience facial disfigurement from surgery. Reconstructive surgery (see above) may be recommended to help appearance or maintain body functions, such as chewing, swallowing, or breathing. Patients should meet with the members of the health care team to help them make important decisions about their treatment. Programs that help patients adjust to changes in body image may be useful both before and after the surgery. Talking with your doctor about what to expect and how recovery will be handled can help you cope with side effects.
Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells. A radiation therapy regimen (schedule) usually consists of a specific number of treatments given over a set period of time. It can be the main treatment for head and neck cancer, or it can be used after surgery to destroy small pockets of cancer that cannot be removed surgically. A doctor who specializes in giving radiation therapy to treat cancer is called a radiation oncologist. The most common type of radiation treatment is called external-beam radiation therapy, which is radiation given from a machine outside the body.
Specific types of external-beam radiation therapy include intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), which allows for more effective doses of radiation therapy to be delivered while reducing the damage to healthy cells and causing fewer side effects. Proton therapy (also called proton beam therapy) is another type of external-beam radiation therapy, using protons rather than x-rays. At this time, however, proton therapy is not a standard treatment option for most head and neck cancers.
When radiation treatment is given using implants, it is called internal radiation therapy or brachytherapy.
Before beginning radiation treatment for any head and neck cancer, patients should receive a thorough examination from an oncologic dentist (a dentist experienced in treating people with head and neck cancer). Since radiation therapy can cause tooth decay, damaged teeth may need to be removed. Often, tooth decay can be prevented with proper treatment from a dentist before beginning treatment. People should also receive an evaluation from a speech pathologist who has experience treating people with head and neck cancer.
Patients may experience short- and long-term pain or difficulty swallowing, changes in voice because of swelling and scarring, and loss of appetite, due to a change in sense of taste. It is important that patients begin speech and swallowing therapy early, before radiation treatment begins, to prevent long-term problems with speaking or eating.
In addition, radiation therapy to the head and neck may cause redness or skin irritation in the treated area, swelling, dry mouth or thickened saliva from damage to salivary glands, bone pain, nausea, fatigue, mouth sores, and/or sore throat. Other side effects may include hearing loss, due to buildup of fluid in the middle ear; buildup of earwax that dries out because of the radiation therapy’s effect on the ear canal, and fibrosis (scarring).
Radiation therapy also may cause a condition called hypothyroidism in which the thyroid gland (located in the neck) slows down and causes the patient to feel tired and sluggish. This may be treated with thyroid hormone therapy. Every patient who receives radiation therapy to the neck area should have his or her thyroid checked regularly. Patients are encouraged to talk with their health care teams about what to expect from side effects of radiation therapy before treatment begins, including how these side effects can be prevented or managed.
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells, usually by stopping the cancer cells’ ability to grow and divide. Systemic chemotherapy is delivered through the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. Chemotherapy is given by a medical oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating cancer with medication. A chemotherapy regimen (schedule) usually consists of a specific number of cycles given over a set period of time. A patient may receive one drug at a time or combinations of different drugs at the same time.
The side effects of chemotherapy depend on the individual and the dose used, but they can include fatigue, risk of infection, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and diarrhea. These side effects usually go away once treatment is finished.
The medications used to treat cancer are continually being evaluated. Talking with your doctor is often the best way to learn about the medications prescribed for you, their purpose, and their potential side effects or interactions with other medications.
Targeted therapy is a treatment that targets the cancer’s specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environment that contributes to cancer growth and survival. This type of treatment blocks the growth and spread of cancer cells while limiting damage to normal cells.
Recent studies show that not all tumors have the same targets. To find the most effective treatment, your doctor may run tests to identify the genes, proteins, and other factors in your tumor. As a result, doctors can better match each patient with the most effective treatment whenever possible. In addition, many research studies are taking place now to find out more about specific molecular targets and new treatments directed at them.
For head and neck cancers, targeted therapies against a tumor protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) may be used. Talk with your doctor about possible side effects for a specific medication and how they can be prevented or managed.
Cancer and its treatment often cause side effects. In addition to treatment to slow, stop, or eliminate the cancer, an important part of cancer care is relieving a person’s symptoms and side effects. This approach is called palliative or supportive care, and it includes supporting the patient with his or her physical, emotional, and social needs.
Palliative care can help a person at any stage of illness. People often receive treatment for the cancer and treatment to ease side effects at the same time. In fact, patients who receive both often have less severe symptoms, better quality of life, and report they are more satisfied with treatment.
Before treatment begins, talk with your health care team about the possible side effects of your specific treatment plan and supportive care options. And during and after treatment, be sure to tell your doctor or another health care team member if you are experiencing a problem, so it is addressed as quickly as possible.
Recurrent head and neck cancer
A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called “no evidence of disease” or NED.
A remission can be temporary or permanent. This uncertainty leads to many survivors feeling worried or anxious that the cancer will come back. While many remissions are permanent, it’s important to talk with your doctor about the possibility of the cancer returning. Understanding the risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help you feel more prepared if the cancer does return.
If the cancer does return after the original treatment, it is called recurrent cancer. It may come back in the same place (called a local recurrence), nearby (regional recurrence), or in another place (distant recurrence).
When this occurs, a cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about the recurrence. After testing is done, you and your doctor will talk about your treatment options. Often the treatment plan will include the therapies described above (such as surgery, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and radiation therapy) but may be used in a different combination or given at a different pace. Your doctor may also suggest clinical trials that are studying new ways to treat this type of recurrent cancer.
People with recurrent cancer often experience emotions such as disbelief or fear. Patients are encouraged to talk with their health care team about these feelings and ask about support services to help them cope.
Metastatic head and neck cancer
If cancer has spread to another location in the body, it is called metastatic cancer.
Patients with this diagnosis are encouraged to talk with doctors who are experienced in treating this stage of cancer, because there can be different opinions about the best treatment plan.
Your health care team may recommend a treatment plan that includes a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Supportive care will also be important to help relieve symptoms and side effects.
For many patients, a diagnosis of metastatic cancer can be very stressful and, at times, difficult to bear. Patients and their families are encouraged to talk about the way they are feeling with doctors, nurses, social workers, or other members of the health care team. It may also be helpful to talk with other patients through a support group.
If treatment fails
Recovery from cancer is not always possible. If treatment is not successful, the disease may be called advanced or terminal cancer.
This diagnosis is stressful, and this is difficult to discuss for many people. However, it is important to have open and honest conversations with your doctor and health care team to express your feelings, preferences, and concerns. The health care team is there to help, and many team members have special skills, experience, and knowledge to support patients and their families. Making sure a person is physically comfortable and free from pain is extremely important.
Palliative care given toward the end of a person’s life is called hospice care. You and your family are encouraged to think about where you would be most comfortable: at home, in the hospital, or in a hospice environment. Nursing care and special equipment can make staying at home a workable alternative for many families.
Doctors and scientists are always looking for better ways to treat patients with head and neck cancer. To make scientific advances, doctors create research studies involving people, called clinical trials.
Many clinical trials are focused on new treatments, evaluating whether a new treatment is safe, effective, and possibly better than the current (standard) treatment. These types of studies evaluate new drugs, different combinations of existing treatments, new approaches to radiation therapy or surgery, and new methods of treatment. Patients who participate in clinical trials are often among the first to receive new treatments, such as new chemotherapy, before they are widely available. However, there is no guarantee that the new treatment will be safe, effective, or better than a standard treatment.
There are also clinical trials that study new ways to ease symptoms and side effects during treatment and manage the late effects that may occur after treatment. Talk with your doctor about clinical trials regarding side effects. In addition, there are ongoing studies about ways to prevent the disease.
Patients decide to participate in clinical trials for many reasons. For some patients, a clinical trial is the best treatment option available. Because standard treatments are not perfect, patients are often willing to face the added uncertainty of a clinical trial in the hope of a better result. Other patients volunteer for clinical trials because they know that these studies are the only way to make progress in treating head and neck cancer. Even if they do not benefit directly from the clinical trial, their participation may benefit future patients with head and neck cancer.
Sometimes people have concerns that, by participating in a clinical trial, they may receive no treatment by being given a placebo or a “sugar pill.” The use of placebos in cancer clinical trials is rare. When a placebo is used in a study, it is done with the full knowledge of the participants.
To join a clinical trial, patients must participate in a process known as informed consent. During informed consent, the doctor should list all of the patient’s options so that the person understands how the new treatment differs from the standard treatment. The doctor must also list all of the risks of the new treatment, which may or may not be different than the risks of standard treatment. Finally, the doctor must explain what will be required of each patient in order to participate in the clinical trial, including the number of doctor visits, tests, and the schedule of treatment.
Patients who participate in a clinical trial may stop participating at any time for any personal or medical reason. This may include that the new treatment is not working or there are serious side effects. Clinical trials are also closely monitored by experts who watch for any problems with each study. It is important that patients participating in a clinical trial talk with their doctor and researchers about who will be providing their treatment and care during the clinical trial, after the clinical trial ends, and/or if the patient chooses to leave the clinical trial before it ends.
Cancer and its treatment can cause a variety of side effects. However, doctors have made major strides in recent years in reducing pain, nausea and vomiting, and other physical side effects of cancer treatments. Many treatments used today are less intensive but as effective as treatments used in the past. Doctors also have many ways to provide relief to patients when such side effects occur.
Fear of treatment side effects is common after a diagnosis of cancer, but it may help to know that preventing and controlling side effects is a major focus of your health care team. This is called palliative or supportive care, and it is an important part of the overall treatment plan, regardless of the stage of disease.
Common side effects from each treatment option for head and neck cancer are described in detail within the Treatment section. Side effects depend on a variety of factors, including the cancer’s stage, the length and dosage of treatment(s), and your overall health.
Before treatment begins, talk with your doctor about possible side effects of each type of treatment you will be receiving. Ask which side effects are most likely to happen, when they are likely to occur, and what can be done to prevent or relieve them. And, ask about the level of caregiving you may need during treatment and recovery, as family members and friends often play an important role in the care of a person with head and neck cancer. .
In addition to physical side effects, there may be psychosocial (emotional and social) effects as well. Patients and their families are encouraged to share their feelings with a member of their health care team who can help with coping strategies.
During and after treatment, be sure to tell the health care team about the side effects you experience, even if you feel they are not serious. Sometimes, side effects can last beyond the treatment period, called long-term side effects. A side effect that occurs months or years after treatment is called a late effect. Treatment of both types of effects is an important part of survivorship care.
After treatment for head and neck cancer ends, talk with your doctor about developing a follow-up care plan. This plan may include regular physical examinations and/or medical tests to monitor your recovery for the coming months and years. If radiation therapy was used, your doctor may recommend regular thyroid gland checkups, done through blood tests.
Rehabilitation is a major part of follow-up care after head and neck cancer treatment. People may receive physical therapy to maintain movement and the range of movements and speech and swallowing therapy to regain skills, such as talking and eating. Proper evaluation and treatment may often prevent long-term speech and swallowing problems. Supportive care to manage symptoms and maintain nutrition during and after treatment may be recommended. Some people may need to learn better ways to eat or to have foods prepared differently.
People may look different, feel tired, and be unable to talk or eat the way they used to. Many people experience depression. The health care team can help people adjust and connect them with support services. Support groups may help people cope with changes following treatment.
People recovering from head and neck cancer are encouraged to follow established guidelines for good health, such as maintaining a healthy weight, not smoking, eating a balanced diet, and having recommended cancer screening tests. Talk with your doctor to develop a plan that is best for your needs. Moderate physical activity can help rebuild your strength and energy level. Your doctor can help you create an appropriate exercise plan based upon your needs, physical abilities, and fitness level.
Doctors are working to learn more about head and neck cancer, ways to prevent it, how to best treat it, and how to provide the best care to people diagnosed with this disease. Always talk with your doctor about the diagnostic and treatment options best for you.
New medications. Many studies are underway investigating new types of cancer medications to treat head and neck cancers.
Combined therapies. Most research for head and neck cancers focuses on combining different types of treatments to improve the effectiveness and the patient’s quality of life.
Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA). Used on a localized tumor that cannot be removed by surgery, RFA is a minimally invasive treatment option that applies heat to the tumor.
Gene therapy. Gene therapy is a targeted form of treatment that uses biologic gene manipulation to change bits of genetic code in a person’s cells. Although gene therapy is relatively new, it appears to show promising potential for treating head and neck cancer.
Photodynamic therapy. In photodynamic therapy, a light-sensitive substance is injected into the tumor that stays longer in cancer cells than in normal cells. A laser is directed at the tumor, which destroys the cancer cells. The long-term effects of photodynamic therapy are still being investigated.
Proton therapy. Proton radiation therapy can be used as a boost (part of treatment) to reduce normal tissue toxicity. It can be used as part of the treatment for some skull-base tumors—including nasopharynx; chordoma, a rare tumor that usually occurs in the spine and base of the skull; and chondrosarcoma, a cartilage-based tumor—to further limit the radiation dose to normal structures, such as the optic (eye) nerves and brainstem.
HPV. Research continues regarding the link between HPV and head and neck cancers, evaluating both why this virus raises the risk for the disease and why it may affect treatment results in some cases. Investigation is also underway about whether the HPV vaccine, currently used to prevent cervical, vaginal, vulvar, and anal cancers is effective in preventing some head and neck cancers, as well.
Supportive care. Clinical trials are underway to find better ways of reducing symptoms and side effects of current head and neck cancer treatments in order to improve patients’ comfort and quality of life.